Triple-deck and direct numerical simulation analyses of high-speed subsonic flows past a roughness element

DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2015.281
This paper is concerned with the boundary-layer separation in subsonic and transonic flows caused by a two-dimensional isolated wall roughness. The process of the separation is analysed by means of two approaches: the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow using the Navier–Stokes equations, and the numerical solution of the triple-deck equations.